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Task-Based Computer-Mediated Negotiation in an EFL Context. The Ins and Outs of Online Negotiation of Meaning Using Language Learning Tasks

Автор:   Ali A.
мягкая обложка
244 страниц
2010 год
Издательство:   Книга по Требованию
3231 руб
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Описание:The book mainly investigates task-based, synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) among EFL learners of English. The observed differences in the online negotiations call for a new model of computer-mediated negotiation. The interaction scripts reveal that learners do negotiate for meaning in CMC when communication breaks down. It specifically explores (a) how learners negotiate for meaning when they interact in CMC in terms of frequency of negotiations, its causes, and the phases of resolving communication breakdown, (b) the relationship between the task type and the amount of negotiation that transpires, and (c) the learners’ perceptions about their task-based interaction in CMC. 24 NNS-NNS dyads collaboratively completed 6 communicative tasks falling under 3 task types while chatting in Moodle. The results also suggested that task type did have an effect on how much learners negotiated for meaning. The causes of these negotiations varied in the chat scripts but they were mainly content and lexical triggers. Finally the interview data revealed the different views the learners held about the tasks and how they influenced their interaction, language learning, and their CMC.

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Real-Time Concepts for Embedded Systems

Chapter 11: Timer and Timer Services 11.1 Introduction In embedded systems, system tasks and user tasks often schedule and perform activities after some time has elapsed. For example, a RTOS scheduler must perform a context switch of a preset time interval periodically-among tasks of equal priorities-to ensure execution fairness when conducting a round-robin scheduling algorithm. A software-based memory refresh mechanism must refresh the dynamic memory every so often or data loss will occur. In embedded networking devices, various communication protocols schedule activities for data retransmission and protocol recovery. The target monitor software sends system information to the host-based analysis tool periodically to provide system-timing diagrams for visualization and debugging. In any case, embedded applications need to schedule future events. Scheduling future activities is accomplished through timers using timer services. Timers are an integral part of many real-time embedded systems. A timer is the scheduling of an event according to a predefined time value in the future, similar to setting an alarm clock ...»

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