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Biases and Stages in Phonological Acquisition. Learning an Optimality Theoretic grammar restrictively and gradually, and the theory of Error-Selective Learning

Автор:   Anne-Michelle T.
мягкая обложка
284 страниц
2008 год
Издательство:   Книга по Требованию
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3231 руб
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Описание:This book presents Error-Selective Learning (ESL), an error-driven model of OT phonological acquisition in which is both restrictive and gradual. ESL is restrictive because it relies on a restrictive ranking algorithm (Prince and Tesar 2004; Hayes 2004) to learn from its errors. At the same time ESL is gradual, because it uses a novel method for selecting errors that drive minimal changes to the grammar from each developmental stage to the next. Together, these two properties provide a model that can derive many attested intermediate stages in phonological development, while also understanding how learners eventually converge on the target grammar. The book synthesizes the existing arguments for BCD algorithms, presents the mechanics and rationale behind Error-Selective Learning, and provides cross-linguistic support for the ESL approach via attested intermediate stages of L1 phonological development. The book' s results also emphasize the crucial roles for stored errors, throughout the slow and extended process of building a new phonology.


Orthomol Immun Junior Сила иммунитета на страже Вашего ребенка Orthomol Immun Junior Сила иммунитета на страже Вашего ребенка

2990 руб
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Drama: An Actor's Education

But, typically, my parents shared none of it with their kids. Years later, when my father was an old man, he told me the events of that year from his point of view. I finally learned what he and my mother had so expertly kept from me while it was actually going on. Originally, the summer season was to be sponsored in large part by ToledoБЂ™s major newspaper, The Blade. Assured of their backing, Dad had posted an БЂњEquity bondБЂ« and had engaged a company of actors, signing their contracts himself. Almost all of these actors were friends and veterans of his former Shakespeare Festival. The new festival was to be precisely modeled on the old one, even using its distinctive unit stage design. Continuity was everything. He planned to capitalize on the reputation of the old festival and retain its huge following, both in Ohio and in neighboring states. As it happened, my father relied too heavily on his own optimism and the good faith of his backers. To his shock and dismay, The Blade withdrew its funding, but too late for him to cancel the season ...»

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Ручка-стилус шариковая "Даниил".
Перед Вами готовый подарок в стильной упаковке — шариковая ручка со стилусом. Она имеет прочный металлический корпус, а надпись нанесена с
415 руб
Раздел: Металлические ручки
Резак для бумаги с ковриком.
Обеспечивает аккуратный и ровный отрез бумаги, фотографий и плакатов. Подходит для формата А4 (максимальная длина реза 350 мм). Безопасен
1073 руб
Раздел: Ножи, ножницы, резаки
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Набор фломастеров-кисточек. Предназначены для рисования на бумаге и картоне. В наборе: 12 цветов. Характеристики: - круглый пластиковый
342 руб
Раздел: 7-12 цветов


Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax and Acquisition
OT subsitutes constraints for rules in universal grammar and linguistic performance. - Contributors include the leading researchers in Optimality Theory - Applies Optimality Theory to other central aspects of language - Of great interest to linguists at graduate level and above The introduction of Optimality Theory (OT) by Prince and Smolenski in 1995 is frequently seen as the most important development in generative grammar of the 1990s.
          2226 руб             2000 год          648 стр.          мягкая обложка

English in 20 Minutes a Day 7-12 (Английский за 20 минут в день 7-12)// Book 2: Audio Scripts: Stages 7-12// Book 2: Resource: Stages 7-12 (сост. Аспиналь Т., Вайат Р., Робинсон Э.)// 6 CD// 2 папки
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Focusing on investigating changes in coordination has enabled a detailed examination on the process of change with practice and referencing these changes to a model of learning based on concepts in nonlinear dynamics.
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Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Second Language Acquisition. A Study of International Students in Universities of the People’s Republic of China
In the past decade, studying Chinese as a second language has prospered, which has attracted a large influx of international students from all over the world into China.
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Essential proteins of parasitic nematodes:. Proteomic analysis of excretory/secretory proteins from parasitic and free-living stages of Strongyloides ratti
The high genetic similarity then allows to draw parallels between the human parasite and other Strongylid nematodes.
          3984 руб             2009 год          204 стр.          мягкая обложка

The L2 Acquisition of English and Spanish Causative Structures. A Bidirectional Study
The L2 acquisition of argument structure has attracted the attention of several researchers in the field of Second Language Acquisition in the last decade.
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Three-dimensional Perception for Mobile Robots. Concepts and Approaches for the Acquisition, Efficient Representation, and Semantic Interpretation of Three-dimensional Range Data for Mobile Robots
To compute consistent large-scale 3D outdoor maps, we use an extended constraint optimization method similar to GraphSLAM.
          2781 руб             2008 год          196 стр.          мягкая обложка

The Acquisition of English Soun[dz] by Native Japanese Speakers. A Perceptual Study
Crucially, some sounds may be problematic even if they are used in the native language of the learners.
          2005 руб             2008 год          108 стр.          мягкая обложка

THE ACQUISITION OF SYNTAX AND DISCOURSE. Pronominals and Word Order in English and Greek Learners of Spanish
This book investigates the acquisition of syntactic and discursive properties by adult learners of non-native Spanish.
          3231 руб             2008 год          336 стр.          мягкая обложка

Cross-linguistic effects on the acquisition of L2 aspect. a bi-directional investigation
The results revealed that learners were sensitive to the aspectual contrasts that are instantiated in their L1. On the other hand, they were unable to detect the aspectual constrast if the semantic interpretation is different between their L1 and L2, which indicates L1 influence.
          2781 руб             2009 год          164 стр.          мягкая обложка

Aspect, Aspect Hypothesis, Prototype Theory. Present Perfect Acquisition by Polish Learners of English as Foreign Language
I reported the results of a small pilot study I conducted to conclude finally that both Aspect Hypothesis and Prototype Theory explain the process of Present Perfect acquisition to some extent, however, that other factors, notably telicity, may also have a great impact upon acquiring tense and aspect by learners of English as Foreign Language.
          2005 руб             2009 год          80 стр.          мягкая обложка

The Question of Learning to Read and Write. A critical study of literacy acquisition
This book leans on the work of three prominent twentieth century philosophers - Heidegger, Wittgenstein and Foucault - to reflect upon the deeper issues involved.
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The Effects of Part-task and Whole-task Instructional Approaches on Acquisition and Transfer of a Complex Cognitive Skill Teaching Complex Cognitive Skills.
The study compared a conventional instructional approach (called the Part-task approach) with a 4C/ID-model based instructional approach (called the Whole-task approach) to see if the 4C/ID approach promotes better transfer of learning in a complex learning domain.
          2413 руб             2010 год          156 стр.          мягкая обложка

The Impact of Microcredit: a Concrete Help or a Mere Utopia?. Analysis of this Poverty-Alleviating Model through its Different Stages of Development
One of the reasons why it is difficult to root it out is that access to credit is often denied to poor people or to people who cannot offer solid guarantees and stability.
          2005 руб             2010 год          92 стр.          мягкая обложка

The Acquisition of ILT Skills by FE Teachers. The Acquisition of Information and Learning Technology Skills by FE Teachers
It explores the perceptions of practicing teachers with reference to their personal development and if such development indicates compliance with adult learning theory.
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It traces autosegmental phonology from the classical generative phonological theory through non-linear phonology.
          2005 руб             2010 год          100 стр.          мягкая обложка

ASPECTS OF SECOND LANGUAGE SPEECH:. A VARIATIONIST PERSPECTIVE ON SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
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          1596 руб             2010 год          112 стр.          мягкая обложка

Phonological History of English Consonants
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Early stages of preparation for the accountancy papers of the intermediate
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The history of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, from 1749 to 1774, comprising a detailed narrative of the origin and early stages of the American Revolution
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Au profit des unites operationnelles de la police Reflexion sur des stages de gestion du stress.
          1111 руб             2011 год          80 стр.          мягкая обложка

German-Italian Bilingual Students' Acquisition of English Word Order in a German Educational Context Word Order Transfer in Third Language Acquisition.
The book concludes with some reflections for language teachers.
          1920 руб             2010 год          68 стр.          мягкая обложка

2009 Copa Sudamericana Final Stages
The 2009 Copa Sudamericana de Clubes (officially the 2009 Copa Nissan Sudamericana de Clubes for sponsorship reasons) is the 8th edition of the CONMEBOL' s secondary international club tournament. Internacional were the defending champions, having won the trophy the previous season. Ecuadorian side LDU Quito won the 2009 tournament, becoming the first Ecuadorian winners of the trophy. From this edition onward, CONCACAF teams, which have participated in the tournament since 2005, will no longer be participating. This will also mark the last tournament in which Argentine clubs River Plate and Boca Juniors will be invited to participate without qualification. Further changes include the additional allocation of berths (1) to all the countries except Brazil and Argentina. The last four stages of the 2009 Copa Sudamericana de Clubes are the Round of 16, Quarterfinals, Semifinals, and Finals. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles!
          1528 руб             2010 год          108 стр.          мягкая обложка

Primary Stages
Primary Stages was founded in 1984 by Casey Childs as a New York State non-profit theater company with the mission of producing new plays and fostering the artistic development of emerging and established playwrights.
          1120 руб             2010 год          68 стр.          мягкая обложка

Incremental Development of Retrieval and Adaptation Knowledge base Knowledge Acquisition for Case-Based Reasoning.
This approach is effective with respect to both, the development of highly tailored and complex retrieval and adaptation functions for CBR as well as the provision of an intuitive and feasible approach for the expert.
          3048 руб             2010 год          252 стр.          мягкая обложка

Acquisition of Academic Literacy through CMC. Non-native Graduate Students in Applied Linguistics
Yet limited research is conducted in this regard.
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