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Общие вопросы экономики Общие вопросы экономики
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Biases and Stages in Phonological Acquisition. Learning an Optimality Theoretic grammar restrictively and gradually, and the theory of Error-Selective Learning

Автор:   Anne-Michelle T.
мягкая обложка
284 страниц
2008 год
Издательство:   Книга по Требованию
3231 руб
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Описание:This book presents Error-Selective Learning (ESL), an error-driven model of OT phonological acquisition in which is both restrictive and gradual. ESL is restrictive because it relies on a restrictive ranking algorithm (Prince and Tesar 2004; Hayes 2004) to learn from its errors. At the same time ESL is gradual, because it uses a novel method for selecting errors that drive minimal changes to the grammar from each developmental stage to the next. Together, these two properties provide a model that can derive many attested intermediate stages in phonological development, while also understanding how learners eventually converge on the target grammar. The book synthesizes the existing arguments for BCD algorithms, presents the mechanics and rationale behind Error-Selective Learning, and provides cross-linguistic support for the ESL approach via attested intermediate stages of L1 phonological development. The book' s results also emphasize the crucial roles for stored errors, throughout the slow and extended process of building a new phonology.

Orthomol Immun Junior Сила иммунитета на страже Вашего ребенка Orthomol Immun Junior Сила иммунитета на страже Вашего ребенка

2990 руб
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Drama: An Actor's Education

But, typically, my parents shared none of it with their kids. Years later, when my father was an old man, he told me the events of that year from his point of view. I finally learned what he and my mother had so expertly kept from me while it was actually going on. Originally, the summer season was to be sponsored in large part by ToledoБЂ™s major newspaper, The Blade. Assured of their backing, Dad had posted an БЂњEquity bondБЂ« and had engaged a company of actors, signing their contracts himself. Almost all of these actors were friends and veterans of his former Shakespeare Festival. The new festival was to be precisely modeled on the old one, even using its distinctive unit stage design. Continuity was everything. He planned to capitalize on the reputation of the old festival and retain its huge following, both in Ohio and in neighboring states. As it happened, my father relied too heavily on his own optimism and the good faith of his backers. To his shock and dismay, The Blade withdrew its funding, but too late for him to cancel the season ...»

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Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax and Acquisition
OT subsitutes constraints for rules in universal grammar and linguistic performance. - Contributors include the leading researchers in Optimality Theory - Applies Optimality Theory to other central aspects of language - Of great interest to linguists at graduate level and above The introduction of Optimality Theory (OT) by Prince and Smolenski in 1995 is frequently seen as the most important development in generative grammar of the 1990s.
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The 2009 Copa Sudamericana de Clubes (officially the 2009 Copa Nissan Sudamericana de Clubes for sponsorship reasons) is the 8th edition of the CONMEBOL' s secondary international club tournament. Internacional were the defending champions, having won the trophy the previous season. Ecuadorian side LDU Quito won the 2009 tournament, becoming the first Ecuadorian winners of the trophy. From this edition onward, CONCACAF teams, which have participated in the tournament since 2005, will no longer be participating. This will also mark the last tournament in which Argentine clubs River Plate and Boca Juniors will be invited to participate without qualification. Further changes include the additional allocation of berths (1) to all the countries except Brazil and Argentina. The last four stages of the 2009 Copa Sudamericana de Clubes are the Round of 16, Quarterfinals, Semifinals, and Finals. High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles!
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